300+ words

Discussion Questions: 
1)  Discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Energy, Dams, Nuclear Reactors, Materials and Waste sectors. 

2)  How are the public and private sectors being coordinated to assist in securing (security) these sectors?Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation, Second Edition. Ted G. Lewis.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.




Energy—derived from fossil fuels, wind, solar, and nuclear—
propels everything. It runs power plants, heats our homes,
powers our cars, and air-conditions our offices. Without
energy, the telephone and Internet wouldn’t work, and the
modern conveniences we take for granted vanish. The United
States consumes roughly 100 quads of energy/year. This is
equivalent to 17.5 billion barrels or 735 billion gallons of
crude oil. Approximately, 20% of this energy comes from
coal, 23% from natural gas (NG), and 35% from petroleum.
Figure  12.1 further indicates that 38% is converted into
electricity to run computers, homes, offices, and factories.
Transportation in the form of cars, trucks, busses, airplanes,
ships, and trains consumes 27%. Incredibly, 55% is lost due to
conversion, transmission, and nonconservation inefficiencies.
For example, an incandescent light bulb based on Edison’s
invention wastes 95% of the energy needed to light up a room.

The energy sector is transitioning to renewable fuels such
as wind, solar, tidal, and geothermal. This transition will take
40–50 years but radically alter another infrastructure—trans-
portation. Automobiles, trucks, trains, and airplanes are likely
to be running on electrons, hydrogen, or some fuel other than
gasoline by 2030. Conversion of the energy sector from fossil
fuels to some alternative such as electricity will most likely
bring major sociopolitical and economic shifts with it.

This chapter examines critical nodes of the fossil fuel
supply chains1 that deliver much of the energy consumed by
the United States. We illustrate how this supply chain works

through case studies: the Powder River Basin coal supply
chain, the Gulf of Mexico to Northeastern U.S. supply chain,
and the Northeast storage facility located in New Jersey. The
following summarizes the result of these analyses:

• Energy versus power: Energy is the ability to do work;
power is the rate of doing work. Therefore, power is mea-
sured in units like kilowatts (kW) and horsepower
(ft-lb/s), and energy is measured in units like
kilowatt-hour (kWh). The mathematical relationship is
energy = power × time. The energy sector is concerned
with extraction and delivery of fuels to power plants, and
the power sector is more concerned with producing power
from power plants and delivering it to consumers.

• Coal supply chain: This critical supply chain is highly
dependent on transportation in the form of rail delivery
of coal to power plants. The United States leads the
world in coal reserves. The Powder River Basin is the
largest source of coal in the United States, and its delivery
depends on rail service to power plants. While the United
States is highly dependent on coal as a fuel, environ-
mental rCritical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation, Second Edition. Ted G. Lewis.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


ElEctric PowEr


In 2000, the National Academy of Engineering named
modern power grids—those vast electrical power genera-
tion, transmission, and distribution networks that span the
country—the top engineering technology of the twentieth
century. According to the Academy’s opinion, the Power
Grid surpassed the invention of the automobile, airplane,
moon shot, atomic bomb, delivery of safe and abundant
water, and electronics as the most important engineering
accomplishment. Electrical power is what makes modern
society tick. It is essential. So it comes as no surprise that the
grid is one of the fundamental infrastructures of the United

In this chapter, you will learn the following concepts and
be able to apply them to the challenge of electrical power
grid risk analysis:

1. Blackouts are increasing: The frequency and size of
power outages have been rising exponentially since
deregulation in 1992. This increase is traced to a
number of factors, including, but not limited to, under-
investment in transmission and distribution, deregula-
tion of utilities resulting in loss of control, and network
topology—rising self-organized criticality (SOC) due
to the Grid’s wiring diagram.

2. Deregulated utilities: Historically, the components of
power—generation, transmission, distribution, load
(consumption), and SCADA control—have been
owned and operated by vertically integrated utility
companies. Since 1992, these vertically integrated
monopolies have been disaggregated and decoupled
from generation, transmission, and distribution of

power through deregulation legislation. Unfortunately,
deregulation has brought with it economic and control
vulnerabilities that are still being worked out. By sep-
arating key components of the Grid into competing
companies, regulation has introduced instabilities in
command and control of the Grid.

3. Deregulation and physics: The power Grid has been
and continues to be shaped by a combination of gov-
ernmental regulation and the laws of physics—these
two do not always work together. Physics demands
rigorous control of complex electrical circuits.
Deregulation often ignores this requirement by sepa-
rating control from the operators, thus introducing
instability. A deregulated Grid is like a highway net-
work with thousands of vehicles going in different
directions: accidents are bound to happen.

4. There is no shortage of power, but there is a shortage
of transmission and distribution capacity. The U.S.
produces approximately 15% more power than it con-
sumes. But it cannot always deliver power to where it
is needed, when it is needed, because of inadequate
transmission and distribution capacity. This occasion-
ally leads to blackouts—massive normal accidents
that start smahttps://www.cisa.gov/dams-sector



Power Grid Cybersecurity: Who’s In Charge?

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