CJUS 330 Judicial Process Test 1 Answers • • Question 12 out of 2 points Which term refers to the methods of enforcing legal obligations? • Question 22 out of 2 points The operation of two separate and distinct court systems in the United States is referred to as: • Question 32 out of 2 points Another word for stare decisis is: • Question 42 out of 2 points Much of the Bill of Rights has been made applicable to the states through the: • Question 51.5 out of 1.5 points The mental state required for a crime to have been committed is referred to as the actus reus. • Question 61.5 out of 1.5 points To be criminal, an act must be voluntary. • Question 71.5 out of 1.5 points Legislatures did not become a principal source of law in the United States until the 20th century. • Question 81.5 out of 1.5 points The due process model emphasizes protecting the rights of the individual. • Question 92 out of 2 points CASE 2.1The founding fathers engaged in a vigorous debate over whether there should be a federal court system separate from the state systems. Those who supported a strong federal judiciary ultimately prevailed. Subsequent expansion of the federal courts has created a contemporary controversy over how to alleviate the problem of rising caseloads within the federal court system.Which of the following statements regarding proposals to reduce federal caseloads is TRUE? • Question 102 out of 2 points Which Article of the U.S. Constitution provides the basis for the federal judiciary? • Question 112 out of 2 points What is one of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation prior to 1787? • Question 122 out of 2 points Drug prosecutions account for approximately what percentage of all federal criminal cases? • Question 131.5 out of 1.5 points Article III judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. • Question 141.5 out of 1.5 points The federal courts set the parameters for the operations of the criminal justice system. • Question 151.5 out of 1.5 points The United States has one national court system plus separate court systems in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Selected Answer: • Question 160 out of 1.5 points In misdemeanor and petty offense cases, U.S. magistrate judges may preside over trials, accept pleas of guilty, and also impose sentences. Selected Answer: • Question 172 out of 2 points Which type of panels are typically used by intermediate courts of appeals? Selected Answer: .rotating three-judge panel• Question 182 out of 2 points In Ewing v. California (2002), the U.S. Supreme Court enacted what State of California law? Selected Answer: .three strikes• Question 192 out of 2 points About __________ cases are filed each year in the major trial courts of the states. Selected Answer: .31.9• Question 200 out of 2 points To be eligible for drug treatment by drug courts, defendants: Selected Answer: .may be charged with drug possession or drug sale.• Question 211.5 out of 1.5 points Most criminal cases do not go to trial. Selected Answer: • Question 220 out of 1.5 points In domestic violence courts, a single judge handles multiple criminal, family court, and divorce cases involving the same defendant. Selected Answer: • Question 231.5 out of 1.5 points Citizens are more likely to have contact with a trial court of limited jurisdiction than with any other type of court. Selected Answer: • Question 241.5 out of 1.5 points A century ago, state courts systems included only a single appellate body—the state court of last resort. Selected Answer: • Question 250 out of 2 points Which state supreme court ruled that juveniles have the constitutional right to a trial by jury? Selected Answer: .California• Question 262 out of 2 points Most states consider children to be juveniles until they reach which birthday? Selected Answer: .18• Question 272 out of 2 points Which act mandated deinstitutionalization of juvenile offenders? Selected Answer: .the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act• Question 282 out of 2 points CASE 4.1Beginning around 1890, members of the Progressive movement advocated a variety of political, economic, and social reforms. They were genuinely concerned about the economic disparities, social disorders, and excesses of industrialization, particularly as they affected children. Progressives denounced the evils of child labor and pushed for legislation banning the practice. They were likewise appalled by the violent and exploitive conditions of reform schools. The fact that orphans were thrown into reform schools for the uncontrollable circumstance of having no parents shocked the Progressives’ moral values. Taking up the plight of the children of the urban immigrant poor, they argued that these children were not bad but were corrupted by the environment in which they grew up.Which doctrine allowed the Progressives to use the juvenile court to help children? Selected Answer: .parens patriae• Question 291.5 out of 1.5 points All states use the same ages to establish juvenile court jurisdiction. Selected Answer: • Question 301.5 out of 1.5 points Parental rights may be terminated altogether if a juvenile court judge determines that the parents failed in their responsibility to raise a child properly. Selected Answer: • Question 311.5 out of 1.5 points With regard to juvenile proceedings, juveniles have the right against self-incrimination. Selected Answer: • Question 321.5 out of 1.5 points Historically, those 8-years-old and older were considered adults in the eyes of the law, prosecuted as adults, convicted as adults, and served their sentences in the same prison cells as adults. Selected Answer: • Question 330 out of 2 points Which concept stresses the importance of the patterned interactions of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys? Selected Answer: .the courtroom workgroup concept• Question 342 out of 2 points Which of the following is NOT a major subcomponent of discretion? Selected Answer: .judicial restraints• Question 352 out of 2 points CASE 5.2The regular participants in the day-to-day activities of a courtroom include the judge, prosecutor, and defense attorney. There, actors in the courtroom often make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts. The decisions made by these actors allow the courtroom process to flow smoothly and enable the speedy processing of defendants.What is the name of the concept that describes the network of ongoing relationships among courthouse actors? Selected Answer: .courtroom work group• Question 362 out of 2 points A problem common to all organizations, courts included, is the need to break in new members, a process known as: Selected Answer: .socialization.• Question 371.5 out of 1.5 points The same differences of opinion about crime that characterize society as a whole likewise divide courthouse actors. Selected Answer: • Question 381.5 out of 1.5 points Courts are paperwork bureaucracies. Selected Answer: • Question 391.5 out of 1.5 points Speedy-trial laws are limited because they do not deal with discretion. Selected Answer: • Question 401.5 out of 1.5 points The clerk of court is responsible for maintaining order in the courtroom. Selected Answer: • Question 41Needs Grading Contrast the due process and crime control model Selected Answer: Some of the differences between the due process model and the crime control model are in the due process model people that are arrested are perceived to be innocent until proven in a court of law. The crime control model believes that the people that are arrested are guilty and need to be punished by the government. Another difference with both models is the due process model believes that policing within the criminal justice system is essential to maintaining justice within society. The crime control model believes that the arresting of people in the criminal justice system has a negative effect and slows down the process of the criminal justice system. One more difference is the due process model believes in the rights of the defendants and proving their guilt is essential to keep the government in control. The crime control model believes that the rights of the defendant cost too much and the criminal justice system should be spending more money on recruiting police officers and building prisons. Although both models have some differences, they also have some similarities. The due process model and the crime control model both believe that the defense counsel’s job is to act as an advocate within the criminal justice system. Another similarity of both models is they both believe that criminals should be punished if they violated the law.Response Feedback: [None Given]• Question 42Needs Grading Contrast civil and criminal law proceedings. Selected Answer: ivil law and criminal law are two separate limbs of the legal system in America. Each one is broad, with its own set of laws and punishments. There are several differences between criminal cases and civil cases. Criminal cases aim to punish the offender, who has offended the state (or society). Civil lawsuits, on the other hand, are filed to get the offender to make good the wrong they’ve done to another individual. Civil cases may involve matters such as small claims, personal injury or property damage. By contrast, criminal cases involve misdemeanors or felonies committed against the state.Response Feedback: [None Given]
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